Health & Lifestyle Report
HEALTH & LIFESTYLE
Your report includes details on:
- Caffeine Sensitivity
Caffeine is a commonly consumed psychostimulant and is found in coffee, tea and other caffeinated foods and medications. Caffeine promotes wakefulness, enhances mood and increases mental alertness. However, it can also produce anxiety, nausea, increased blood pressure, trembling and jitteriness. These effects vary for different people and are due to certain genetic variants. Caffeine sensitivity does not necessarily correlate with the efficiency of the body to metabolise caffeine, as even fast metabolisers can still be sensitive to caffeine and get the jitters from drinking coffee. The variations in caffeine sensitivity are due to differences in the amount of caffeine receptors in the brain and the efficiency of these receptors to bind caffeine and these factors are dependent on your genetic make-up.
- Genetic Bone Mineral Density
Bone mineral density (BMD) is a measurement of the amount of bone minerals in the bone. Minerals such as calcium give the bone strength, certain genetic variants can lead you to a slight risk of having problems in this area. Other necessary nutrients for strong bones include vitamin D, magnesium, potassium and many other vitamins and minerals. Bone tissue is constantly broken down and rebuilt throughout our life. Bones naturally become thinner as we age because existing bone tissue is broken down faster than new bone is made. This can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. Weight bearing exercises are also necessary to maintain strong bone density and prevent osteoporosis and other bone mineral disorders.
- Genetic Obesity Risk
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated such that is it may have a negative effect on health. A person is considered obese when their body mass index (BMI) is over 30 kg/m2. Obesity increases the likelihood of developing various diseases including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obstructive sleep apnoea, cancer, osteoarthritis, depression and ultimately 8-13 years shorter life expectancy. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical exercise and genetic susceptibility.
- Genetic Type 2 Diabetes Risk
Type 2 Diabetes is a long term metabolic disorder that is characterised by high blood sugar, insulin resistance and a relative lack of insulin. Long term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, stroke, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations. The pancreas makes a hormone called insulin which turns glucose into energy. In type 1 diabetes the body is unable to make insulin. However, people with type 2 Diabetes can make insulin but the cells in their body are unable to use it the way they should. This is known as insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes primarily results from obesity and lack of exercise, however some people are more genetically at risk than others.
- Genetic Hypertension Risk
Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. Hypertension is a major risk factor for several conditions including coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss and chronic kidney disease. Hypertension is classified as either essential of secondary. Essential hypertension accounts for approximately 90-95% of cases and is due to lifestyle and genetic factors, whereas secondary hypertension is the result of underlying disease. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk of hypertension include excess salt intake, excess bodyweight, smoking and alcohol intake. Normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100-140 mmHg systolic and 60-90 mmHg diastolic.
- Genetic Infection Risk (colds/flu)
The common cold and influenza (also known as the flu) are both contagious viral infections of the respiratory tract. Although the symptoms can be similar, the flu is much worse and can lead to more serious problems such as pneumonia. Symptoms of a cold include congestion, sore throat and sneezing. Coughing, headache and chest discomfort are experienced with both the flu and a cold. However the flu is also associated with fever, body-aches, fatigue and weakness. These viruses can enter your body through your mouth, eyes or nose. It can spread through droplets in the air when someone who is sick coughs or sneezes, and can also spread by hand-to-hand contact. While anyone can catch one of these infections, some people are more genetically susceptible.
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