Vitamins & Supplement Report
VITAMIN & SUPPLEMENTS
Your report includes details on:
- Vitamin D
Vitamin D being a fat-soluble vitamin is stored in the fat cells and thus being overweight and carrying excess body fat will diminish its effects. If you are having trouble losing weight then getting your levels checked should be high on your list, as increased weight gain can be a clear indicator of deficiency.
Latest studies indicate that Vitamin D can both reduce the formation of new fat cells, as well as reduce the storage of current fat cells within the body.
Vitamin D is also required for correct communication between cells and how they respond to insulin, with parathyroid hormone levels being affected when vitamin D levels are low.
This can then lead to fat cells converting sugar into fat, then storing fat instead of releasing it to be burned for energy.
Low levels of vitamin D can also affect leptin signalling, which is a hormone that tells your brain when you are full and to stop eating.
Vitamin D is needed for strong bones as it brings calcium into bones. It has other roles in the body, including modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function, and the reduction of inflammation. Vitamin D deficiency is a widespread problem in developed countries. Environmental factors such as diet, intake of vitamin D supplements and exposure to sunlight are known to influence serum vitamin D concentrations. Testosterone is highly linked with vitamin D levels and therefore any risk should be met with swift supplementation to help prevent low testosterone levels.
- Vitamin A
If as part of your new weight loss routine you have started to exercise more frequently then vitamin A will play an important role in your recovery.
Vitamin A has anti-oxidant properties that will also keep you fit, healthy and on track as it is extremely useful at fighting free radical build up and supporting the immune system.
Its also important to realise that if you reduce fats from your diet then vitamin A levels will be affected due to less bile being drawn into the intestines, where it’s required for optimal absorption of vitamin A.
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble compound that is essential for the function of retinal pigments of vision, for growth and renewal of cells and tissues like mucosa and immune cells. Vitamin A is known as the anti-infective vitamin, it is required for normal functioning of the immune system. Vitamin A is also needed for hormone metabolism and iron transportation and both vitamin A excess and deficiency are known to cause birth defects. Pre-formed vitamin A (retinoids) exists only in animal products such as organ meats, fish oil and dairy products. However, there are about 50 carotenes that the body can convert into vitamin A. The most common is beta-carotene, what you can find in orange, yellow, green vegetables and fruits.
Iron is an essential nutrient required by every human cell. The main function of iron is to transport oxygen to our cells and tissues and for energy production. Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world and the leading cause of anaemia. Iron deficiency without anaemia is associated with inefficient energy metabolism and reduced muscle strength and endurance. It is also possible to have iron overload caused by excessive intake and certain medical conditions, it is therefore important to have blood analysis to check levels.
Magnesium is an extremely important mineral that everyone should take in order for your body to function correctly.
In terms of how it will help you to lose weight, it helps to regulate blood sugar and insulin levels, which are obviously major contributors to gaining weight. Insulin is the hormone that regulates our blood sugar levels throughout the day and after eating, when your body doesn’t utilise insulin effectively, this can result in weight gain.
Magnesium is a required mineral and cofactor for over 300 metabolic reactions in the body. The body consists of about 25 g of magnesium, with about 50-60% in the bones and the remainder in soft tissue. Magnesium deficiency is widespread in the modern diet. Our fast-paced modern lifestyles and reliance on many refined foods (which tend to have low magnesium content) mean that many of us are not getting enough magnesium in our diet. Magnesium deficiency may lead to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Magnesium is needed in energy production and is vital in tissue functions (blood, muscle etc.). Low magnesium consumption, particularly against a background of high calcium intakes, increases the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Optimal calcium-magnesium ratio should be 2:1. Many calcium-rich foods like milk or cheese have calcium-magnesium ratio 10:1 or 30:1, which does not favour calcium or magnesium uptake.
Potassium is an essential nutrient that constitutes 5% of the mineral content of the body, and found in varying amounts in a variety of foods. It has a whole host of important roles from maintaining healthy blood pressure, improved kidney function and stabilising fluid and electrolytes. Having a potassium deficiency (hypokalemia) can have an array of symptoms from high blood pressure, headaches and dehydration. If potassium levels are too high or low then our heart and nervous system will be affected. Potassium along with sodium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium is an electrolyte, meaning that it helps to conduct electrical charges in your body. Diets high in potassium are associated with improved blood pressure. There are several factors that contribute towards this beneficial effect, including improved kidney function, reduction in blood clotting, and crucially inhibiting certain genes such as ACE, AGT and AGTR1 which convert angiotensinogen increasing vasoconstriction, potassium will allow more efficient vasodilation and improved blood flow. It is important to understand the synergy of potassium and sodium as well. They exist in a partnership; every time the body requires potassium you will also need sodium to maintain balance. Importantly, with blood pressure issues increasing it could be related to the average diet becoming depleted in potassium with higher concentrations of sodium, throwing the balance out of this crucially important relationship.
Sodium is an essential nutrient for blood pressure, volume and pH, the minimal level human need is 500mg per day. We normally get our sodium from sodium chloride also known as simple table salt. Due to the 1st world diet it is estimated that the majority of people over consume sodium and therefore any genetic risk of deficiency is unlikely to have much impact. However those involved in heavy activity or highly intense sports may find that their sodium levels drop more dramatically which could have a negative effect on muscle efficiency and may lead to cramps.
- Vitamin B6
B6 is part of a family of 8 vitamins that are all essential to life and all provide us with a variety of health benefits.
Vitamin B6 will play an integral part to enhancing your weigh loss and fat burning goals, as it’s an essential nutrient for increasing your body’s metabolism. This is achieved for 2 main reasons, firstly it supports and improves thyroid function, and secondly by regulating your body’s use of energy from carbohydrates, fats and protein, which with improvements to blood sugar levels can reduce overeating and food cravings. If you decide to reduce calories then B6 plays a pivotal role in converting stored carbohydrates as well as other nutrients to maintain your blood sugar levels
We can obtain B6 from a wide variety of foods, and with the exception of tuna and turkey the vast majority being plant-based. Some but not all fruits are good sources such as bananas, pineapples, and avocados.
MUHDO Health Top Tips:
• B6 as with all B vitamins work together in carbohydrate metabolism, so if you need to improve your performance reach for the B vits.
• Magnesium is used as a cofactor in every reaction that B6 is required for, so be sure to optimise your energy by adding magnesium rich foods.
• High protein diets have been known to increase B6 depletion, so make sure to increase B6 when protein levels are high.
• B-Complex taken before bed will improve sleep, and activates parts of the brain during (REM) which can result in heightened dreams.
Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble essential nutrient and must be obtained from the diet because humans cannot synthesise it. Vitamin B6 has a number of functions. Vitamin B6 with other nutrients like folate and vitamin B12 is involved in keeping homocysteine levels low, which decreases cardiovascular risks. Vitamin B6 is an important vitamin for red blood cell production and carbohydrate metabolism providing good energy levels throughout the day, for neurotransmitter production leading to healthy nerves, brain and mood and to support liver functions. There is a wide variety of foods that act as good sources of vitamin B6 and it is probably easy to reach the recommended level of daily intake if you are eating a variety of healthy, fresh food every day. Vitamin B6 is essential for amino acid absorption and therefore vital for muscle building and all those involved in sport.
- Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 is one of the most common deficiencies, affecting your whole body, from brain to bone. Deficiency in vitamin B12 is often related to poor B12 absorption, which can be due to lack of stomach acid, rather than direct dietary deficiency. Some people also need a lot more B vitamins than others. In adults, typical deficiency symptoms include loss of energy, tingling, numbness, reduced sensitivity to pain or pressure, blurred vision, abnormal gait, sore tongue, poor memory, confusion, hallucinations and personality changes. Often these symptoms develop gradually over several months to a year before being recognised as being due to B12 deficiency and they are usually reversible on administration of B12. A lack of vitamin B12 can cause anaemia, dementia and nervous system damage.
Folate, also called folic acid or folacin, is a B-complex vitamin which is most well known in the prevention of pregnancy defects. Folate is a crucial nutrient that supports important physiological functions such as DNA synthesis, cell division and substrate methylation. Adequate folate intake is also helpful in lowering the risk of some forms of cancer, especially in genetically susceptible individuals, and may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases with keeping homocysteine levels low.
Omega 3’s can be extremely useful for enhancing your fat burning capabilities, by turning on enzymes that improve fat burning in cells.
Adding Omega 3’s to your diet will also help to reduce total body inflammation, and thus improve metabolic function, which will also aid with your weight loss or fat burning goals.
DHA and EPA that our found in fish oil may also help improve leptin function, and in turn help reduce hunger and food cravings.
MUHDO Health Top Tips:
• Always take your Omega 3 supplements with food.
• Obtain your Omega 3 from a variety of sources. See list below.
• Always taken with breakfast, as will reduce high cortisol levels in the morning.
• Always store Omega 3’s sealed and in the fridge, this will reduce oxidation and damage caused by the light and air.
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for our health. Omega-3 fatty acids include 3 different fat acids shortened to ALA, EPA and DHA. Our body needs all 3 types and they are all essential, which means, we cannot produce them in our body, but we need to get them from the food we eat. Omega-3 fatty acids are primarily essential for a healthy heart and blood vessels, eyes and the brain. There is evidence that omega-3 fatty acids are useful in the prevention and treatment of heart disease, cognitive function and depression, EPA and DHA are essential for prevention of these ailments. Deficiencies or imbalances in brain fats are now known to be associated with everything from dyslexia, hyperactivity, depression, schizophrenia and manic depression.
Calcium is the best-known mineral needed for strong bones. Calcium is a mineral found in the body and one of the most abundant, most of it is located in the bones and teeth. Other necessary nutrients for strong bones are vitamin D, magnesium along with many other minerals and vitamins. Low calcium intake has been associated with a multitude of disorders like risk of hypertension, preeclampsia, premenstrual syndrome, obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperparathyroidism. Weight-bearing physical activity is also necessary to build strong bones, optimise bone mass and reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
BCAA’s (Branch Chain Amino Acids) consist of three amino acids bound together on a branched chain nature, and these amino acids are: LEUCINE, ISOLEUCINE & VALINE
Out of these three amino acids it appears that leucine has the greatest effect on preventing muscle tissue breakdown and increasing protein synthesis, it appears that isoleucine plays a larger role in glucose uptake within the cells with valine on the other hand appears to have neural effects and maintains nitrogen balance within the body. When a person’s diet is low in BCAA’s due to food preference or a vegan/vegetarian diet then supplemental BCAA’s will be beneficial in promoting protein synthesis and muscle tissue growth, however studies are uncertain if the supplements will help those with an adequate dietary intake (1-1.5g/kg of protein). Genetic variants may help us understand how we utilise these three amino acids and therefore if it is worth using them.
Choline is a water-soluble nutrient that is neither classified as a vitamin or a mineral, but is often grouped with the B-complex family. Until recently it was incorrectly thought that we could produce enough internally to meet our daily needs. Luckily Choline is contained in a wide variety of food groups with eggs, chicken, salmon and brussels sprouts all containing good levels. Deficiency can cause a host of health issues from reduction in metabolism and transport of lipids from the liver, muscle damage, methylation and down-regulation of neurotransmitters. Methylation is an extremely important function in our body, from correct and efficient signalling between cells and genes to improved detoxification and cardiovascular health.
Keeping your lean muscle mass is crucial to improve your metabolic rate and your ability to lose weight and burn fat. Glutamine aids in lean muscle building and reduces the catabolic effects of stress and exercise.
It also plays an important role in increasing human growth hormone production, by reducing insulin levels, which can also help support fat burning/metabolism, as well as also increasing new muscle growth.
Glutamine is not an essential amino acid, but is considered conditionally essential and the most common found in the body. It has a variety of important roles, from metabolising protein, reducing muscle breakdown, boosting immune, digestive and brain function, to helping the body to produce Human Growth Hormone. One of its most important roles is maintaining a nitrogen balance throughout the body. Glutamine is used by a variety of organs such as kidney, liver, small intestines and skeletal muscle accounts for 70% of glutamine production. It is also extremely useful for intestinal and digestive health; as the tissue lining that protects the intestines prefer glutamine as their fuel source. Glutamine can be found in both animal sources such as meats and dairy, as well as plant sources such as Spirulina, beans, raw spinach, and asparagus. Getting a varied source of both will be of obvious benefit, however animal sources are not as easy to digest and absorb as plant sources of glutamine.
Adding Creatine to your current supplement list could provide you with that extra boost that your training needs, and will help you to improve your fat burning and weight loss goals.
Increasing muscle performance and resistance training is key to improving lean muscle to help boost your metabolic rate, and in turn help burn body fat.
MUHDO Health Top Tips:
• Remember to maintain good fluid levels throughout the day, as Creatine super hydrates the muscles and may cause slight tears with insufficient hydration.
• Creatine levels can be diminished with extended cooking times.
Creatine is an organic acid that helps supply cells with energy, this is important for sportsmen and women as the cells primarily involved are found in muscle tissue. This energy is attained by increasing the construction of adenosine triphosphate or ATP. Creatine is produced naturally in our bodies from amino acids, breakdown which occurs mainly in the liver. The creatine is then transported via the vessels to our muscles, with 90-95% of all total creatine being located in the skeletal muscles. As creatine is manufactured by the body from the amino acids: L-methionine, L-arginine and glycine it is not an “essential” nutrient, this being the case 50% of all our stored creatine comes from food, and meat in particular, studies show that vegetarians have a much lower creatine store within the skeletal muscles as non-vegetarians. Now this doesn’t mean that vegetarians should supplement actual creatine, although that is an option. A more natural method of lifting the creatine levels would be to supplement foods that contain the above-mentioned amino acids thus allowing the body to synthesize the required creatine.
Beta-Alanine commonly known as alanine, is a non-essential amino acid, and unlike the majority of amino acids is not used to synthesize proteins. Beta-alanine once consumed is quickly converted to Carnosine, which is then stored in your skeletal muscle. Beta-alanine is extremely effective at reducing lactic acid build up in your muscles during intense exercise, which can lead to an increase in performance. It can also be used post exercise to buffer and remove the lactic acid that has built up to allow the body to recovery more effectively. Getting sufficient levels of beta-alanine through your diet can be achieved through consuming foods high in dipeptides, which are found in animal protein-rich foods such as cod, pork, beef etc. It’s for this reason that vegetarians and vegans will have much lower concentration levels of carnosine in their muscles.
- Arginine (For Increased Vasodilation)
Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid, it is conditional to which stage of development a human is or during illness. It is highly important to blood flow and nitric oxide creation; it is because of these aspects it is often vital in times of human illness. Hypertension and diabetes are two diseases that arginine becomes important, and therefore it is a worthwhile supplement for anyone suffering from these, although it may make low blood pressure worse. Genetic variants may help explain the impact arginine will have on us with some having a large benefit from supplementation.
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